HISTORICAL INFORMATIONsecoa_case_study_cities_resize

The 17 SECOA study areas have diverse characteristics, many owing to their different location and history. 13 study areas are located in Europe and 4 in Asia. They have a diversified history which contributes to their development direction and current situation. Most of the European case-studies have a long history that has left marks throughout. The most notable are Rome and Brugge, which are the two UNESCO sites. Other cities also feature countless archeological and historical monuments. For the Asian case-studies, the most important historical feature is the mark of colonisation periods.  Although different in features, all cases have shown a great use of historical values for tourism development.

    ..................CASE STUDIES
    .....................CONFLICT CASES
    ........ITALY ...Rome metropolitan area ...Civitavecchia
    ...Ostia water-use & management
    ...Chieti-Pescara urban area.. ...The “Costa Teatina” National Park..
    .....BELGIUM ...Oostende ...Ostend Airport
    ...Zeebrugge ...Schipdonk canal
    ...Zeebrugge harbour
    ....PORTUGAL.. ...Lisbon metropolitan area ...Trafaria and Costa da Caparica
    ...Algarve Region ...Ria Formosa Natural Park
    ...Funchal urban area ...Funchal Bay
    ..........UK ...Thames Gateway ...Barking Riverside
    ...Lower Thames Crossing
    ...Portsmouth City ...Langstone Harbour/ Farlington Marshes
    ...Tipner Regeneration
    .......ISRAEL ...Tel Aviv metropolitan area.. ...Palmachim beach
    ...Netanya sandstone cliffs
    ...Haifa metropolitan area ...Haifa Port
    ......SWEDEN ...Gothenburg metropolitan area . ...Torsviken
    ...Malmö metropolitan area ...Managing urban sprawl
    ........INDIA ...Mumbai metropolitan area ...Sanjay Gandhi National Park
    ...Mangrove forest
    ...Chennai metropolitan area ...Pallikaranai Marshland
    . ....VIETNAM ...Hai Phong ...Hai Phong Port
    ...Industrial zone
    ...Nha Trang ...Nha Trang


All study-areas are very different in term of geographical size and population. They include large metropolitan areas, cities and towns. For most of the case studies, a core area and at least one ring were defined. The core can be seen as the administrative area of the metropolitan where most of the jobs are concentrated. The ring plays the role of supplying the core with necessary workforce, often at the rate of 15% or more.In term of natural resources, the most notable in all case-studies is the coastal landscapes and ecosystems that are being exploited mainly for tourism purposes. The case studies possess diversified morphological features ranging from beaches and wetlands to inland forests. At all European case studies, Natural 2000 sites are present. They are important sites for conservation of important habitats and bird species. However, more often, they locate also very close to urban development.
The 17 study areas boast a variety of ecosystems as expected due to their various characteristics; a number of protected areas can be found, either designated by national legislation or under regional protection. In most of the European case studies, protected areas scattered and mingled amongst urban centres. However, European Bird Directive and Habitats Directive also create a large network of protected sites. In Asian cases, a number of National Parks and Protected Areas are present. They are important features for various reasons, mainly ecosystem functions and touristic attractions. Also, it is notable that most urban centres in Europe have high percentage of green spaces. The combination of urban green space and forest areas in European case-studies is as high as 60%.
Land resource is the next important feature. Land-use is a very important aspect that is defined by the socio-economic development process. The case-studies in SECOA can be categorised into two groups: the developed group where development process has stablised and landuse change occurs slowly. The other group is the fast growing group (or developing group) where landuse change occurs much faster.In the European case-studies, landuse has largely been defined by the development process and many changes are controlled by planning. Area for agriculture/arable land is the main land-use type in most of the western European countries, with as high as 78% of land area in Chieti-Pescara. Industrial land-use is relatively small in area in most of them.


All case-studies boast valuable cultural features. In some places there are features of international importances. In other places are values of regional and national
importances. The most notable are Rome and Brugge, where several UNESCO Heritage Sites locate. Rome is one of the richest basins of cultural heritage in the world. In all sites, regional and national important sites can be identified easily. Monuments with archeological or religious values concentrate at high density in most of the cases.
One of the most dominant social phenomena in the SECOA-cases is the dynamic migration scheme. Migration had always been a visible phenomenon in the Metropolitan Areas, mainly due to the large employment market. Migrants tend to search low price housing in the suburbs and simultaneously to settle near work places. There is a positive influx rate seen throughout all European case-studies. However, positive migratory rate has been slowing down in recent year, with peaks during the 2002-2005 period. Also, the core areas experience some time a negative migratory rate, indicating people are moving out of the core areas. However, the rate of migrants is often high in the core, indicating that while local people are seeking new living space outside the crowded core, migrants are moving in. All coastal areas witness positive migratory rate. In the four Asian case-studies, rural-urban migration is dominant. In Greater Mumbai, proportion of
migrants accounts for a round half of the total population, with more migrants in the ring than in the core.


Economy is an important feature that is shaped by the utilisation of the coastal resources as well as defining the impacts exerted on them. In coastal areas around the world, economic development patterns run on a rather common path. Traditionally, coastal economy relies mainly on fisheries and aquaculture, tourism and port development. In recent development trends, economic growth has shifted to more focus on the tertiary and quarterly sectors, with the fast growing of the services and information sectors. This common trend is reflected in all of the cases in the SECOA project, with the case studies in developing countries in Asia are at the traditional development phase with fisheries/aquaculture, tourism and port sectors play the major roles in the development of the regions. Meanwhile, in developed countries in Europe, the economy has shifted to services and informationsectors, with tourism and port development still play the major role. However, each case study has a very different development trends which links to its location and relative position in the region. The impacts of economic downturns in the last decade also affect each case study differently.
Service sector is the only sector that has been growing both in the ring and the core in most cases, sometimes at a very high pace. Service sector also provide the most employments across the cases. In the case-studies of SECOA unemployment rate varies widely. Due to heterogenous data from the case studies, it is not always possible to discuss the unemployment trends. In most case studies, the unemployment rate is higher in the core than in the ring of a study area despite the facts that the core generated much for jobs than the ring.


SECOA identified and analyses specific conflict cases within the selected case studies. This activity is based on the identification and in-depth analyses of  twenty-six conflict cases in  seventeen coastal study areas. An attempt was made in the resulting Report (D4.2) to provide meta-analyses of these cases in a comparative framework. The focus is on a comparative reading of the methodological aspect of their analyses – the analyses by the SECOA partners of their particular cases - in terms of themes, stakeholders / coalition formation, typological classification and ranking. Behind  this focus, the aim was to highlight and address methodological issues involved in comparative analysis and provide an analytical base for developing a conflict assessment framework.

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Chieti_Pescara Lisbon Funchal Thames_Gateway Portsmouth Tel_Aviv Haifa Mumbai Chennai Hai_Phong Nha_Trang Gothenburgh Malmo Rome Algarve Oostende Zeebrugge